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Tanzania, officially the United public of Tanzania, was formed as a sovereign state in 1964 through the union of the theretofore separate states of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. The politics of Tanzania takes place in a framework of a unitary presidential democratic. The current president is John Magufuli, who is in office since 2015. On October 24, 2020, John Magufuli won a second term, with a landslide victory of more than 84% of the vote.


Official languages

The official languages are English and Swahili.


By 2020, the total population of Tanzania was 59,734,218.

Figure VIII    Tanzania: Total population (12)

Figure IX:  Percentage of Population in Urban and Rural Areas in Rwanda (13)

Ethnic group

99% of population in Tanzania is mainland - African (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), the other ethnic group accounts for 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, African, mixed Arab and African).

Figure X:  Population Distribution by Ethnic Group in Tanzania


A 2010 Pew Forum survey estimates approximately 61 percent of the population is Christian, 35 percent Muslim, and 4 percent other religious groups. 

Figure XI:  Population Distribution by Religion in Tanzania



In 2020, Tanzania’s economic growth averaged 7%, The GDP reached 57,145million USD and the Per capital was 1,044.1USD in 2020.

According to WHO, there were over 1.6million malaria cases reported by 2020, which came to 26.8% of the total population. While, the prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS was 10%(6.0 million reported by 2020).


The government-supported education system has three levels: primary (seven years), secondary (four to six years), and university, as well as vocational training schools. During the mid-1970s, universal primary education was made mandatory. By 2015, the literacy rate came to 78%. 

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